• Identifying and tracking microorganisms present in food products, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi
  • Ensuring food safety and quality by detecting the presence of harmful pathogens and monitoring the populations of beneficial microorganisms
  • Tracking the origin of food products Improving food production by identifying beneficial microorganisms that can be used in fermentation processes
  • Identifying spoilage microorganisms
  • Developing new food products.


Microbial communities in the context of geochemical processes and the evolution of Earth's surface environments It can help answer questions such as:
  • Which pathogens are present in the soil of an urban area?
  • Which microbes stimulate growth of plants?
  • What metabolic processes are present in the soil?
It encompasses both surface and agricultural environments, and includes the study of microbial communities in a wide range of environments, including soil, and air.


  • The collection of microorganisms that live in and on the human body
  • The diversity and function of these microorganisms
  • The gut microbiome and its effects on conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and inflammatory bowel disease.


  • Identifying specific microorganisms present in the gut
  • Tracking changes in the microbiome over time
  • Developing personalized diets and nutritional interventions
  • Targeting specific gut microorganisms to improve health outcomes such as weight loss, inflammation, and gut health.


  • Identifying and tracking the presence of pathogens
  • Understanding how different microorganisms interact with one another
  • Identifying microorganisms that play key roles in nutrient cycling and other important ecosystem processes
  • Monitoring water quality, detect the presence of pollutants, antibiotic resistance, and track the impacts of human activities on aquatic ecosystems
  • Identifying new microorganisms that could be useful for bioremediation or other applications in water treatment.


Studying the microbial communities involved in industrial processes: Metagenomics can be used to study the microbial communities involved in various industrial processes such as:
  • Fermentation
  • Bioremediation
  • Waste treatment
By understanding the composition and function of these microbial communities, researchers can:
  • Develop more efficient and sustainable industrial processes
  • Study the microbiome and its potential role in human health in the pharmaceutical industry.